Wednesday, 18 May 2016

Research Bulletin: Empathy and Fantasy Role Playing Games

Negative stereotypes about “gamers”, those who play all kinds of games (e.g., videogames, boardgames, etc.), are everywhere. Indeed, those who “game” are often thought of as lazy, nerdy, or even out of touch with reality. Yet while we often clump gamers together as one big group, the act of gaming can actually encompass countless different types of activities appealing to a wide variety of different people. One particularly interesting type of gaming is the fantasy role-playing game (RPG), in which players create their own fictional characters as well as develop the fictional worlds where those characters exist.
Playing a fantasy RPG, then, is a little bit like doing improv in drama class: players create characters (deciding upon the characters’ qualities, attitudes and beliefs) and play “make believe” with others embodying their own characters. And just as drama classes have their benefits (Schellenberg, 2004), research is beginning to show that there may be some positive aspects to playing fantasy RPGs, which so far seem to have flown under the radar. Specifically, because this type of gaming requires players to take another’s perspective, it has been suggested that people who play fantasy RPGs may have a higher capacity for empathy: the ability to share in someone else’s thoughts, feelings, and perspective on the world (Davis, 1994; Wondra & Ellsworth, 2015). 

Recently, a study was conducted that examined this very possibility (Rivers, Wickramasekera II, Pekala & Rivers, 2016). Researchers measured levels of four distinct types of empathy in a group of self-proclaimed fantasy RPG-players, as well as how “absorbed” (i.e., “lost in the story”) they tended to feel while playing. When the authors compared these levels to the general population, they found that fantasy RPG-players scored significantly higher than average on every facet of empathy. In addition, the more absorbed a player reported being, the higher their self-reported empathy and vice versa. Intriguingly, the authors note that this association between engagement with stories and engagement with people is found not only in the “gamer” population, but also in the general public. So, gamers tend to be more empathic the more they become immersed in the game, and the same is observed among those who have a tendency to become highly immersed in other types of fictional stories. These results are correlational, of course, and so it is not clear whether the act of playing fantasy RPGs improves empathy, whether more empathic people gravitate toward these types of games, or some other factor plays a role.

Of course, the stigma behind gaming remains, but it’s time to pay attention to its advantages. Although many of us are quick to dismiss gamers as out of touch, we may in fact be the ones missing out on a crucial skill of human connection. 

Posted by Shaina List.

Davis, M. H. (1994). Empathy: A social psychological approach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Rivers, A., Wickramasekera II, I. E., Pekala, R. J., & Rivers, J. A. (2016). Empathic features and absorption in fantasy role-playing. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 58, 286- 294.

Schellenberg, E. G. (2004). Music lessons enhance IQ. Psychological Science, 15, 511–514.

Wondra, J., & Ellsworth, P. (2015). An appraisal theory of empathy and other emotional experiences. Psychological Review, 122, 411–428.

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Monday, 25 April 2016

Stories of the Earth: Prince reminds us how much care it takes to live with each other

The week of Earth Day was intense in Minneapolis this year. Earth Day eve, already a time of pensive introspection given the reminder of climate change this year has been (the pile of street snow that usually would not be melted at the end of my driveway for another month has been gone for over two months already!) and ongoing struggles with dire racial inequalities, also brought the news of Prince's death. As my hometown's most notable hero, Prince has inspired not only the overnight purplization of the city (everyone I encountered on Earth Day was wearing purple, and murals like the one pictured went up immediately), but also an Earth Day sung in and out with all night mourning dance parties. 

I will remain brief and encourage readers to go back to watching amazing Prince music videos and sharing their stories with friends, but will also share a quick reflection of my own. Listening to and watching the outpouring of remembrance and appreciation amongst all my friends (most of whom grew up here, in the inspiring and liberating purple shadow -- and who are giving bookish tributes, #princerevelry, and more), a significant part of what I am hearing echoed is the caring work that makes it possible to live with each other. Van Jones emotional remembrance perhaps has made this most visible for people, opening up the view to Prince's humanitarianism, if they hadn't been paying attention to visible work such as Planet Earth or his more subtle involvement building and funding Green for All and #YesWeCode. Watching those music videos (such as this one with Beyonce) in this light reveals ways of listening and responding that seem important to learn from (this moment, this move!) -- they make Prince so sexy and so loved partly because they show graceful and creative ways of acting on paying attention and caring. 

Caring enough to continue living here seems like one important way to practice our celebration of Earth and its communities, and trying to pay attention, then figuring out what to DO about what we've noticed, like Prince, seems a good tribute.

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Monday, 18 April 2016

Reading Fiction Improves Vocabulary

If you want to test your vocabulary, you can go to this website (click here). It’s a quick and easy test and lots of people have taken it. As a reader of OnFiction, you might like to go to the blog (click here) written by the people who run this test, who have graphed vocabulary scores of 287,314 people who had taken the test by May 2013 in relation to age and to the amount of fiction the test takers read. The results, shown in the figure above, are that the more fiction you read, the better is your vocabulary, that this effect has already started by the age of 15, and that your vocabulary score levels out by middle age. In the first half of life, the size of the vocabulary of people who read a lot of fiction is about twice that of people who read not much fiction.

You might also like to know that the effect of reading fiction is not due to people who are more educated, or have higher IQ, liking to read more fiction. Research shows that it’s not. Research of this kind started with the very important work of Keith Stanovich, Richard West, and colleagues (e.g. Stanovich, West & Harrison, 1995) who did two very cunning things. First they conceived the Author Recognition Test, a list of names, some of which are of authors and some of which are not. You check the names you recognize as authors. Stanovich, West and their colleagues have shown that scores (numbers of authors’ names correctly checked) on this test give a very close proxy to the amounts of reading people do as measured by daily diaries, questionnaires and  behavioural means. The second cunning thing Stanovich, West, et al., did was to take each outcome measure, such as vocabulary, and by means of a statistical technique called hierarchical regression, look to see the influence of everything that might affect it: age, IQ, level of education, gender and so on. The statistical technique allows one both to see the influence of each factor in turn, and then subtract out that influence. What they found was that after all the other influences had been subtracted out, the amount of reading people did predicted not only their vocabulary, but also other verbal abilities which include general knowledge, and verbal fluency.

Recently, Raymond Mar and Marina Rain (2015) used a version of the Author Recognition Test (click here) which they had modified to separate the amount of fiction and non-fiction that people read. They found that the effects found by Stanovich, West, et al. including superior scores on vocabulary, were due not to the reading of expository non-fiction, but to reading fiction. So the result found by the testyourvocab group is solid.

Why should this be? There are probably several reasons. One is that it’s in fiction, rather than in expository non-fiction that the fullest range of words in a language is to be found. Expository non-fiction often contains technical terms, but not most of the range of words in a language. Another reason is that many of the people who read fiction tend to read a lot, and in that way tend to come across more words than people who don’t read much, or who only read expository non-fiction. This effect may be especially true for people who read literary fiction.

Mar, R. A., & Rain, M. (2015). Narrative fiction and expository nonfiction differentially predict verbal ability. Scientific Studies of Reading, 19, 419-433.

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Harrison, M. R. (1995). Knowledge growth and maintenance across the life span: The role of print exposure. Developmental Psychology, 31, 811-826.
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Monday, 11 April 2016

Are shrubs the hipster scented candle? Shrubs and Fermentation, part 2 of 2

As I should perhaps have explained in my prior essay struggling through the social justice implications of sugars and flavorings, shrubs are intense extractions of aromatic compounds from plant matter, contributing a much wider and more idiosyncratic flavoring of beverages. They are often extracted by the combination of fruits, herbs, and spices with sugar and cider vinegar, the active bacterial cultures of which continue to ferment the sugars and fruits, creating novel but recognizable flavors—often from produce that might otherwise have spoiled, such as softening fruits.

Given contemporary interest in mixology, shrubs represent a rediscovery of longstanding folk foodways, such as making switchel (highlighted in the haying scene featured in my childhood copy of the Little House on the Prairie cookbook, for example). They are often also used to perform claims about the tastes of place, taking advantage of locally characteristic flavors and preserving them in relatively storable — and marketable — ways.

Shrubs are also an excellent example of what are often characterized as hipster approaches to consumption and production, emphasizing artisanal craft and unique and intense experience, particularly in the mundane materiality of everyday life. As part of a recent project exploring the uses of edible signal species of climate change, I have been learning about shrubs, and experiencing their intensity has led me to pose this question about whether they represent something like a hipster version of scented candles, a question I think is interesting beyond the superficial similarity of enjoyable aroma.

As a person who has always avoided artificial scents because of unpleasant effects such as headache and respiratory tract pain, I have often been dubious about the appeal of cinnamon-scented stores, smelly candles and fruity personal care items, and air fresheners in general. (And research on the effects of phthalates and other substances used in these scented products reinforces my concern and suggests that people with heightened chemical sensitivities to such substances may well be providing coal-mine canary services to the broader populace.) However, the half hour I spent sniffing at my first shrub once it had brewed (when I had rescued impulse-buy strawberries and some leftover parsley) gave me a sudden appreciation for the sensory pleasure that scented candles must provide for others less punished by them!

Recognizing the joy and beauty of this sensory enjoyment — whether it's a more protected and less acute one, or a more sensation seeking version — makes me also recognize some of the social dynamics caught up in the celebration of the invitation to inhabit a particular place through the senses, or the deriding of poor taste around someone else's scent preferences. As with the precious approach to many food and "lifestyle" choice, things like scent can be used not only for enjoyment, but to perform that enjoyment in ways that signal class positioning as well as empathy for other (as with sugar boycotts). Implications for the ways we craft narratives of of the senses may include more attention to the way we invite others to share or explore our experiences of sensory delight, without dismissiveness or judgment and with attention to the embedding of privilege in foodie preciousness. (A wonderful film treatment of taste this evokes is The Taste of Others!)

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Monday, 4 April 2016

Research Bulletin: Does Music Influence How we See Characters in Movies?

When watching a movie, music plays a significant role in how we interpret the story and its characters. Berthold Hoeckner, Emma Wyatt, Jean Decety, and Howard Nusbaum (University of Chicago) were interested in how music in film might affect empathy. They predicted that music will serve as a vehicle for the audience to better understand and identify with a character’s feelings. Ambiguous scenes were paired with either melodramatic or thriller music to investigate whether the type of music can influence the viewers’ reactions.  Participants were asked to either view several film clips accompanied by either melodramatic or thriller music (N = 16) or view the same clips with no background music (N = 16). Subsequently, the participants completed questionnaire about the how likeable the character was and how sure they were of their ability to pinpoint the character’s thoughts. Additionally, participants partook in a recall task involving the identification of the character’s emotions based on still images from the previously presented clips. What they found was that viewers who saw clips accompanied by music saw the character differently compared to those who saw clips without music. Moreover, different effects were observed depending on the type of music that was used. Melodramatic music led viewers to see the character as more likeable and gave them more confidence in knowing what the character was thinking, compared to no music. In contrast, thriller music made participants feel more uncertain about what the character was thinking and decreased how likeable they saw the character. Both genres of music also evoked certain emotions in the participants. Melodramatic music elicited feelings of love, whereas thriller music aroused anger. These emotions were highly related to the participants’ likeability ratings. Music helped the audience relate to the character by illustrating the character’s emotions and arousing those emotions in the participants. The results suggest that music can influence our ability to emphasize with characters. Although this study demonstrated a strong connection between film music and empathy, further studies are needed to investigate how the way we process film music can affect our emotional attachment. 

Posted by Lilach Dahoah Halevi.

** For a copy of this article, please contact RM (e-mail in About section)

Hoeckner, B. Wyatt, E. W., Decety, J., & Nusbaum, H. (2011). Film music influences how viewers relate to movie characters. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 5, 146–153.

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Monday, 21 March 2016

Research Bulletin: Effects of Video Games and Television Series

Simon Baron-Cohen and colleagues’ (2001) Mind in the Eyes Test has become a preferred way of measuring empathy and theory of mind in adults, and it has been extremely useful in research on effects of reading that we have discussed in OnFiction, see most recently our report of the study by Jessica Black and Jennifer Barnes (2015a) who found in an experiment that reading fiction improved social understanding, as measured by this test, but did not improve non-social understanding (click here). In the Mind in the Eyes Test a person looks at 36 photos of people’s eyes, as if seen through a letter box, and for each photo is asked to choose one of four terms to say what the person is thinking or feeling. This image is one of them, and for it the four terms from which to choose are “joking,” “flustered,” “desire,” “convinced.” The correct answer is “Desire.”

In exploring such effects, until now all the studies that I know had people read texts such as short stories or essays. I have been asked: What about films? What about video games? Usually I say that in principle they should be the same. Now Daniel Bormann and Tobias Greitemeyer (2015) have done a study that answers this question.

Bormann and Greitemeyer had people play a single-player, exploration video game in which a student comes home to her house after a year abroad to find her family missing. The researchers write that the game is played: “By analyzing different clues, such as voice records on answering machines, documents, books, and everyday objects that are distributed in the house, the player gradually reveals bits of the plot. Key elements of the story are narrated by the protagonist’s sister, in form of spoken diary entries. Gone Home was critically acclaimed, above all for excellence in narrative” (p. 648). There were three groups, each of 37 people. In one group the participants were introduced to the game by being given the game’s description from the developer’s website, and in this way, the researchers say, the participants would have in mind “in-game storytelling rather than superficial game characteristics.” Those in the second group also played Gone home, but they were introduced to it by asking them to “register, memorize, and evaluate technical and game play properties of the game as objectively and accurately as possible.” The third group was called neutral, and participants in this group played a different game, an adventure called Against the wall. People in the first group, the narrative condition, achieved better scores on the Mind in the Eyes Test than those in the other two groups.

A comparable effect has now also been found, using the Mind in the Eyes Test by Black and Barnes (2015b) with people who watched an award-winning television series.

So, the effect of fiction on improving empathy and theory of mind is not just due to the inferences of reading. It occurs with other media and, if I may say so, that is perhaps as it should be.

Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Hill, J., Raste, Y., & Plumb, I. (2001). The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” Test Revised version: A study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger's syndrome or high-functioning autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 241-251.

Black, J. E., & Barnes, J. L. (2015a). The effects of reading material on social and non-social cognition. Poetics, 52, 32-43.

Black, J. E., & Barnes, J. L. (2015b). Fiction and social cognition: The effect of viewing award-winning television dramas on theory of mind. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9, 423-429.

Bormann, D., & Greitemeyer, T. (2015). Immersed in virtual worlds and minds: Effects of in-game storytelling in immersion, need satisfaction, and affective theory of mind. Social Psychological Personality Science, 6, 646-652.

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Tuesday, 8 March 2016

Research Bulletin: Print versus Screen, Is One Superior for Comprehending a Text?

Digital reading devices such as laptops, tablets and ebook readers are progressively replacing traditional printed material. Consumers now have access to a wide variety of digital content, including books, magazines and newspapers that were previously exclusively available in print. Moreover, education is one area where this transition from print to screen is occurring at a notably rapid pace. Students use digital reading devices in order to avoid having to carry heavy textbooks and to have access to notes in one central location. Educators and school boards are increasingly integrating technologies, such as digital reading devices, into school curriculums by making use of interactive educational software and providing access to digital notes and digital textbooks. 

Due to the commercial success of digital reading devices and the rapid digitization process that is occurring in education, there are now questions as to whether reading on screen has an impact on the reading comprehension of students. Anne Mangen and colleagues from the University of Stavanger designed a study in order to determine whether students comprehend texts better when reading the text on paper versus reading the text on screen. In order to conduct this study, the researchers retained 72 tenth graders and split them into two groups. One group (n1 = 25) was asked to read the two texts in print, whereas the second group (n2 = 47) was asked to read the same two texts on a digital screen. After reading the two pieces of text, members of both groups were asked to take reading comprehension tests. Those who read on screen did worse on the reading comprehension tests compared to those who read the texts in print. In other words, there was evidence that reading a text on a screen may impair learning from text compared to reading from paper. It seems that more research and consideration is required to evaluate the effects of transitioning from printed text to digital reading devices. In the meantime school boards should err on the side of caution and not undertake expensive rapid digitization programs when the effects of this digitization are not known.

Post by Amin Khajehnassiri

* For a copy of this article, please contact R. Mar (e-mail in About section).

Mangen, A., Walgermo, B. R., & Brønnick, K. (2013). Reading linear texts on paper versus computer screen: Effects on reading comprehension. International Journal of Educational Research, 58, 61–68.

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Monday, 29 February 2016

Trivial Liberation? Shrubs and Fermentation, part 1 of 2

I have often wondered about the role food stories play in organizing people's food behaviors. I'm particularly interested in the intersection between exploratory experiments with food -- prone to being consumed by detail oriented foodie enthusiasm -- and more social justice motivated food actions. It seems that storytelling habits that reinforce trivial aspects of improvement along the food chain can risk undermining more liberatory efforts. At the same time, though, fun food enthusiasms can provide venues for practicing comfort with the significant challenges of liberating food production from the considerable oppression currently found in food production, harvesting, processing,  preparing, serving, and associated clean-up.

I have been considering how to engage those tensions recently as I have learned about a foodie trend that may be particularly characteristic of the current moment in our food culture: shrubs. 

Shrubs have many layers of taste and story. As I've discovered with pies, shrubs can be considered at a basic level to be something to do with fruits that might not otherwise be usable, which is how I discovered them. I returned home from my first visit to Georgia recently with the remnants of an impulse buy of strawberries: they weren't very good, but the amount of labor and resources that go into strawberries meant I didn't want to waste them. I realized that this was a moment to look into those delicious flavors I'd seen popping up at what appear to be a new manifestation of soda fountains bubbling up in hip neighborhoods. And this turned out to be a fruitful insight! Steeped with sugar and apple cider vinegar, which itself continues to ferment the sugar and fruit sugar along with whatever herbs and spices one adds, this process provides a potent flavoring, a spoonful of which can replace a whole can of soda in terms of flavor.

But it takes sugar! Here's where I find myself jumping on the schoolyard seesaw of food justifications. Sugar is such a high impact food, both for the people involved in growing and processing it, and on the ecologies it affects -- as the historical Wedgewood pattern pictured reminds us, from an era when sugar was recognized to be a significant driver of the Atlantic "triangle" trade that enslaved people (in part to create the sugar for tea to drive industrial workers, too). But processes like this kind of fermentation, although they may be making me buy more sugar at the outset, may use so much less over time, if I can replace sugar additions with smaller amounts of this more flavorful creation.  It's also more complex -- possibly even more DIFFICULT -- in flavor, so it's something one might appreciate in smaller servings anyways. But even if it also gives me an added use for citrus peels I would have otherwise discovered, still, it's SUGAR. This tendency to get stuck on a seesaw is a dialectical narrative structure I find instructive when thinking about the food movement. 

One of the things it helps highlight is how even if these foodie rabbit holes help familiarize people with many dynamics of food production they might otherwise not have noticed, no amount of personal choice is likely to create adequate change unless it is organized into collective movements to actually improve the conditions of food production and build supportive regulations. The plates with these Wedgewood patterns above supported Abolitionists as they both organized mass boycotts of sugar produced through slavery (involving both alternative sources in contexts where people were consuming what sounds like remarkably high amounts of sugar and also going without sugar at all in many cases) at the same time that they shaped the legislation that eventually abolished slavery in the U.K. and eventually the U.S

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Monday, 22 February 2016

Obama and truth in fiction

In The New York Review of Books recently a conversation was published between US President Barack Obama and novelist Marilynne Robinson. At the beginning of the second part of this conversation, published on 19 November 2015, p. 6, Obama is quoted as saying:
… the most important set of understandings that I bring to that position of citizen, the most important stuff I’ve learned I think I’ve learned from novels. It has to do with empathy. It has to do with being comfortable with the notion that the world is complicated and full of grays, but there’s still truth there to be found, and that you have to strive for that and work for that. And the notion that it’s possible to connect with some[one] else even though they’re very different from you.
Obama points here to two issues, I think.

The first is that fiction is an invitation to empathy with others. Were he not so busy, I imagine Obama would be delighted to read of recent findings in the psychology of fiction (see e.g. Mar & al. 2006; Kidd & Castano, 2013).

The second is the issue of truth. Certain people—for reasons of their own I suppose—think that fiction is merely made up, that it is lies. But Obama is right. Recent empirical findings have confirmed it: there is truth in fiction—truth of other people—otherwise the findings I quoted in the previous paragraph could not have occurred. Is there more to be said about this kind of truth? Obama says it’s about a “world [that] is complicated and full of grays.” No doubt that’s right, too, but can we go further? Truth in science involves correspondences between mental models of scientists and aspects of the physical and biological world. These worlds oblige by remaining more-or-less stable. But there are other kinds of truth, and for these we must turn to fiction (Oatley, 1999). Each person we know is her or his own world, and each of us is another such world. So among us humans not only are there many worlds to make models of, but these worlds don’t remain stable. They change as we develop, they change with circumstance, and they change with the relationships people enter. And where might we learn about such matters? By living, of course, but also as Barack Obama said, from novels.

Kidd, D. C., & Castano, E. (2013). Reading literary fiction improves theory of mind. Science, 342, 377-380.

Mar, R. A., Oatley, K., Hirsh, J., dela Paz, J., & Peterson, J. B. (2006). Bookworms versus nerds: Exposure to fiction versus non-fiction, divergent associations with social ability, and the simulation of fictional social worlds. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 694-712.

Oatley, K. (1999). Why fiction may be twice as true as fact: Fiction as cognitive and emotional simulation. Review of General Psychology, 3, 101-117.

Obama, B., & Robinson, M. (2015). President Obama and Marilynne Robinson: A conversation in Iowa. The New York Review of Books, 62, 6-8.

Image: Obama and Robinson say “Goodbye” after their conversation, NYRB, 62, p. 6.
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Monday, 15 February 2016

Taking Up Space: Embodying Formations of Visionary Fiction

As I have noted in the past, I study with an organization that provides yoga training in the context of disability, and every year, they hold a month-long "Kiss My Asana" yogathon, which I take as an opportunity to explore embodied experience more deeply, particularly how every body can access the most experienceFollowing the lead of Matt Sanford, who runs MindBody Solutions, I'm organizing my yogathon practice around creating context where it is possible to try to take up as much space as possible -- a feeling I think can be easiest to access through poses that encourage you to push out like a star. 

Last weekend's amazing Formation video repeatedly featured this star-spaced theme -- combining the physical act of making space with attention to the social relationships that challenge or support this space making, something I'd like to stay a few more things about, given that moving the yogathon to February from its prior location in April has placed it squarely in Black History Month.

This child takes this space in front of a line of riot police, which gives a sense of how this act of reaching out can take different kinds of effort, since the star-reaching, dry-swimming, afro-maintaining dance formation in the pool is obviously not easy.

Beyoncé is obviously very powerful -- and part of what has made Formation rock the internet is not just the power of star poses, but their particular use: pitting that power in both powerful and vulnerable ways against oppression:

Splayed out on a police car as it submerges in a New Orleans flood, after asking "Stop shooting us," or restaging plantation representations, she enacts what Adrienne Maree Brown describes as important visionary fiction, showing possibility and what the space it inhabits looks like:

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Monday, 8 February 2016

Research Bulletin: Do "Emotional Rollercoasters" Make Stories More Persuasive?

Researchers have long been interested in how what we read influences what we think. Many of us may find, for instance, that the plot of a novel sparks our interest in a controversial issue or that its characters help us to see perspectives we hadn’t considered. But how do the stories we read change our attitudes and what makes a given story more likely to do so? Although scientists have put forth many ideas to answer this question, our emotional engagement with stories appears to be a key component to their influence. For example, our attitudes may change in response to a story because of the particular emotions it provokes and strong emotional responses may also motivate us to share the stories we read with others (e.g. Dunlop et al., 2010; Heath, Bell & Sternberg, 2001). 

A recent theory by Robin Nabi (UCSB) and Melanie Green (Buffalo) suggests, however, that the way our emotions change as we engage with stories may be equally important (Nabi & Green, 2015). In other words, shifts in how we feel as we engage with a story might evoke subsequent shifts in our opinions and attitudes -- making those shifts more powerful and long-lasting. In their article, "The Role of Narrative's Emotional Flow in Promoting Persuasive Outcomes", Nabi and Green (2015) propose several intriguing possibilities for how this may take place. 

First, we must choose to attend to a message in order for it to be persuasive and the desire to change our own emotions may play a role. As Zillman's (1988; 2000) mood management theory suggests, we choose messages that we think will evoke a desirable mood -- for instance, we may choose to read comedy to “perk us up” when we’re sad. Secondly, emotional shifts may influence how we process the stories we're engaged with. The authors give the example that points of emotional change within a story may take up more of our mental energy, and this means we are less likely to argue with its underlying message. Ultimately, this effect makes the story more persuasive. Finally, it is suggested that a flux of emotional experience may change the way we interact with a story's message after we're finished reading. We may, for example, engage in further research about a topic from the story that caught our interest. The authors explain that this is more likely to occur when the events within a story are perceived as novel or surprising and that such events are often tied to emotional changes.   

In short, it appears that it is not only emotional quality or depth that influences whether stories can change our attitudes, but also the "twists and turns" of emotions that make stories more persuasive. And in our increasingly complex world, the means by which stories harness the power to open our minds and spark change is certainly a topic worthy of further study.

Post by Shaina List

* For a copy of this article, please contact R. Mar (e-mail in About section).

Dunlop, S. M., Kashima, Y., & Wakefield, M. (2010). Predictors and consequences
of conversations about health promoting media messages. Communication
Monographs, 77, 518–539. doi:10.1080/03637751.2010.502537

Heath, C., Bell, C., & Sternberg, E. (2001). Emotional selection in memes: The case
of urban legends. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1028–1041.

Nabi, R.L. & Green, M.C. (2015). The role of a narrative's emotional flow in promoting persuasive outcomes. Media Psychology, 18:2, 137-162. doi:10.1080/15213269.2014.912585

Zillmann, D. (1988). Mood management: Using entertainment to full advantage. In L.
Donohew & H. E. Sypher (Eds.), Communication, social cognition, and affect
(pp. 147–171). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Zillmann, D. (2000). Mood management in the context of selective exposure theory.
Communication Yearbook, 23, 103–123.

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Monday, 25 January 2016

Writing as Exploration

At the Morgan Library in New York, one of the exhibitions is of some of Jane Austen’s letters and some drafts of her fiction. Her letters are, for the most part, continuous. As in conversation, the words seem just to have flowed. By contrast, Austen’s drafts of fiction are full of crossings-out. Some people might think of this as trial-and-error, but a far better way of thinking about it is as exploration. When one reads a novel or short story, or watches a film, one wants to engage in something that had been explored, thought about, written, re-written, explored again, explored widely.

With her colleagues, Sabina Bourgeois-Bougrine of Paris Descartes University conducted 90-minute interviews with 22 recognized French screenplay writers. The interviewers asked about:
information input (where and how the scriptwriter gets information and inspiration), mental processes (reasoning, planning, thinking, daydreaming, problem solving, decision making), relationships with others, job context, and constraints (p. 385).
The authors of the paper propose a metaphor: writing is traversing a maze of creativity. It is as if writers make a journey in which they navigate several segments, going up blind alleys, doubling back, finding the best pathways. The authors propose three phases. First there is a long and enjoyable phase of what they call “impregnation,” which often involves making maps of the coming journey. This is followed by a phase that the authors call “structuring,” which for screenwriting involves writing an outline and/or treatment that a director, a producer, or a sponsor, must accept before a project can be financed to go forward. In the third phase there is intense writing and re-writing of the script.

Writing scripts and writing for print fiction are in many ways similar, but whereas those who write novels and short stories often work mostly alone and at a certain stage with an editor, scriptwriting is a journey with several others. The authors of this paper say: “The process of rewriting several versions of the script seems to be universal among screenplay writers, engaging often the producer of the film, actors, and so forth (p. 396). The moral standpoints, the views, the ideas, and the preferences, of these people need to be taken into account. Successful scriptwriting depends, in part, on being able to maintain good working relationships with all of them.
In addition, they [the scriptwriters] reported that as one “gets into the skin of the main character,” “understands the character,” and “makes him talk,” they often experience enjoyable moments in which intuition, unconscious, and automatic process take over the generation and selection of creative ideas (p. 397).
The authors offer many other fascinating quotes from the scriptwriters. Here’s one about the first phase:
when I find a good idea, or a scene that I like, I turn around it. Generally, I do a lot of things that are indirectly related to the work, I read a lot, I copy many texts that interest me, I see a lot of movies, I listen to a lot of music (p. 390).
Here is a quote from a scriptwriter about the second phase:
You can have all the talent and all the literary imagination—which are two essential components of the profession—if you don’t have the skills for this tedious task of structuring, you cannot go far. This is something that has more to do with math, a kind of mental structure or consistency: such cause produces such effect (p. 392).
And, here’s a quote from a scriptwriter about the final phase:
There is a constant fluctuation. There are only manic-depressive people in this profession! (laughs). It’s like climbing stairs toward an untouchable star, because in fact at each step we need to climb another one, and as the goal is to reach an untouchable star, we are always in this situation (p. 395).
One reason why Bourgeois-Bougrine and her colleagues’ metaphor of the maze is such a good one is that, although they don’t say this, for a really good story nearly the whole maze needs to have been explored. When this has happened, the watcher of the movie (or the reader of the book) will get the sense that the route taken in the story is a good one in comparison with all the less-good turnings that could have been taken.

Bourgeois-Bougrine, S., Glaveneau, V., Botella, M., Guillou, K., De Biasi, P. M., & Lubart, T. (2014). The creativity maze: Exploring creativity in screenplay writing. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 8, 384-399.

Image: Cawthorne Maze, South Yorkshire.

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